Infertility is a complex condition usually associated with reproductive system disorder. Both or either of the male and/or female partners may be responsible for infertility. Broadly, infertility is categorized as primary and secondary. In primary infertility, the germ cell structure growth is arrested. Consequently, cell necrosis happens because of anatomical or physiological disorders.
Common male infertility
Manifestation of male infertility can occur due to the following reasons:
Low sex drive reduces libido – often healthy lifestyle, proper diet, and supplements can use to boost male libido.
Erectile dysfunction or impotence- this physical condition causes sporadic erection or incapability to develop an erection.
Low sperm count- lower sperm concentration in the semen sample decreases the chance of conceiving the female partner because of fertilization failure.
Sperm motility – mobility of sperm in semen sample negatively affects the possibility of pregnancy. Sperm motility does not depend upon the sperm count which means increased sperm count does not indicate viability.
Testosterone levels – low levels of testosterone in the male may cause infertility.
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Common female infertility
Infertility in women usually occurs due to different reproductive health issues like advanced maternal age, adenomyosis, endometriosis, polycystic ovarian syndrome, tubal block, submucous fibroid, pelvic inflammatory disease, hormonal imbalance, etc.
Genital tuberculosis occurs in women and can damage the fallopian tube and endometrium which causes 18% of female infertility. Lifestyle factors affect menstrual irregularity in 33% of females. These females often face difficulty in conception.
Premature ovarian failure (POF), polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), endometriosis, and leiomyoma are some of the underlying causes of female primary infertility.
Disruption of spermatogenesis and associated semen anomalies like irregular sperm count, morphological disorder, motility defect, and even sometimes normal parameters of semen (idiopathic infertility) lead to primary male infertility.
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)
Certain findings recognized that women with PCOS can be inherited from their mothers. In PCOS conditions, ovarian function disorder leads to irregular periods and a lack of ovulation. In general, PCOS is one of the common findings among infertile women who are facing difficulty to conceive. However, modern fertility treatments can regulate PCOS and help sufferers to get pregnant.
In endometriosis, a tissue lining is formed outside the womb. This is another potential cause of inheritance infertility. This indicates that endometriosis can be transmitted from a mother to her female child/children.
Klinefelter’s syndrome is a genetic disorder for male infertility. In this condition, the affected father transmits an extra X chromosome to his male child/children. Klinefelter’s syndrome is one of the common male chromosomal disorders found across the globe. A male with Klinefelter’s syndrome often struggles for assisting in natural conception.
Defective genetic factors influence infertility
The underlying causes of secondary infertility are systemic or syndromic genetic defects such as endocrinal, metabolic, or developmental defects.
Some genetic disorders like Fragile X syndrome, Fanconi anemia, sickle cell anemia, β-thalassemia, myotonic dystrophy, Kartagener’s syndrome, Noonan syndrome, etc. can be responsible for male or female infertility. Sex development disorders, reproductive dysgenesis disorders, Kallmann syndrome, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, congenital bilateral absence of vas deferens, ambiguous genitalia, and androgen insensitivity are some other disorders involve genetic conditions that have a connection with infertility.
Here it is necessary to mention that no infertility gene exists. Therefore, the transmission of such genes to the next generation cannot possible. Therefore, no infertile parents explicitly can pass the condition through DNA transmission.
However, certain underlying causes can transmit from parents to children. Following are some conditions that may cause a diseased person to become infertile and also the reason for hereditary infertility.
By definition, the causes of unknown infertility are unknown. A fertile person or couple may be diagnosed with unexplained infertility because they fail to give birth after a year.
Similarly, some fertility physicians think that the probable cause of unexplained infertility is that tests performed to diagnose infertility in the first place may be free from minor defects due to incomplete testing methods.
More likely causes of unknown infertility include:
• Ovulation problems
• Poor egg quality
• Poor sperm quality
• Insufficient frequency of sexual intercourse or unprotected sex at the time of ovulation
• Pelvic health problems, especially in the fallopian tubes or uterus