THIRD PARTY REPRODUCTION
THIRD PARTY REPRODUCTION
“Third-party reproduction” refers to the use of eggs, sperms, or embryos that have been donated by a third person (donor) to enable an infertile individual or couple (intended recipient) to become parents. It also includes traditional surrogacy and gestational carrier arrangements.
Types of 3rd party reproduction:
- Oocyte Donation
- Sperm Donation
- Embryo Donation
The first pregnancy resulting from egg donation was reported in 1984. Egg donation requires in vitro fertilization (IVF), as the eggs are removed from one woman, fertilized in the laboratory using the male partner’s sperm and the resulting embryo is then transferred to the recipient’s uterus.
The most common conditions where it is being used are, in women whose ovaries have either been surgically removed or are functioning poorly which may include women with premature menopause, severe diminished ovarian reserve, medical disorders, or exposure to toxins like chemotherapy or radiation therapy. It is also appropriate for women who were born without ovaries.
Sperm donation is a procedure in which a man donates semen to help an individual or a couple conceive a baby. The donated sperm may be injected into a woman's uterus directly using a thin catheter(intrauterine insemination) or used to fertilize mature eggs in a lab (in vitro fertilization).
The most indications for sperm donation include in cases of Azoospermia (absence of sperm), severe oligozoospermia, ejaculatory dysfunction & also in single women who wish to embrace parenthood.
Embryo donation is a procedure that enables embryos that were created by individuals undergoing fertility treatment to be transferred to other infertile patients to help them achieve a pregnancy.
It may be sought as an option in cases of untreatable infertility that involves both partners, untreatable infertility in a single woman or woman without a male partner, recurrent pregnancy loss thought to be related to embryonic factors, and genetic disorders affecting one or both partners.
The process of embryo donation requires that the recipient(s) undergo(es) the appropriate medical and psychological screening recommended for all gamete-donor cycles. In addition, the female partner undergoes an evaluation of her uterine cavity and then her endometrium is prepared well to enable embryo transfer. Such embryos do not belong to anybody and are totally anonymous.