Infertility is medically defined as the inability to conceive through a regular physical relationship without using any contraception even after one year. A report published in 2015 stated that almost 27.5 million Indian couples had suffered from infertility at their fertile age. Among them, female infertility was found for 40% to 50% cases and male infertility was responsible for 30% to 40% cases.
Infertility can occur due to a variety of reasons. Experts commented that male infertility occurred due to reduction of sperm count, sperm motility, and nonexistence of sperm in semen samples or sperm production occurs in the testes, but they unable to reach in semen.
A research study performed in AIIMS declared that the current adult males have three times reduced sperm count (20million/ml) compared with the result obtained three decades ago (60 million/ml). Different factors including environmental changes, urbanization, stress, reproductive health issues, and lifestyle factors are responsible for sperm count reduction and poor quality sperm.
Female infertility usually occurs due to different reproductive health issues like advanced maternal age, adenomyosis, endometriosis, polycystic ovarian syndrome, tubal block, submucous fibroid, pelvic inflammatory disease, hormonal imbalance, etc.
Genital tuberculosis occurs in females damages the fallopian tube and endometrium that leads to 18% of female infertility. Lifestyle factors affect menstrual irregularity in 33% of females. These females often face difficulty in conception.
Female infertility can be diagnosed through a blood test to measure the hormone level, transvaginal ultrasound to gauge uterus and ovaries, and HSG to monitor the fallopian tube. Male infertility can be checked through semen analysis to evaluate sperm count, morphology, motility, and vitality.
Laparoscopy and hysteroscopy are two traditional invasive techniques to diagnose female infertility. However, many less invasive modern technologies have developed as an alternative to these traditional invasive techniques.
Different infertility treatment options
Medical advancement brings many infertility treatment options which are safe and provide effective result. The doctor offers the treatment plan depending upon the couple’s condition. Commencement of treatment depends upon the mutual consideration of the doctor’s advice and the couple’s decision.
IUI technique is used for male infertility treatment. IUI technique makes sperm more concentrated form and directly inserted into the uterine cavity of the intended mother at the ovulation period to increase the scope of pregnancy. IUI technique is effective in the case of the female partner is normal. The IUI procedure is completed within 24 hours.
IVF is a well-established technique usually recommended when other infertility treatment does not provide effective result. The IVF process is commonly known as the test tube baby technique. In this technique, eggs from the intended mother/donor and sperms from the intended father or donor are artificially fertilized in the laboratory. The created embryo is then implanted into the mother’s uterus within 2 to 5 days. IVF technique is a lengthy process and couples need to visit the clinic multiple times.
This process is quite similar to the IVS process, but single sperm is used in this technique. The sperm is directly injected into the egg for artificial fertilization in the laboratory setup. If fertilization is successful and the embryo is formed, then it transfers to the uterine cavity of the intended mother within 2 to 5 days.
This process is specifically utilized for severe male factor infertility. In this process, a very less number of sperms is collected from semen samples or directly from the testis. Among them, high-quality sperm is selected for fertilization. Donor sperm can also be used in case of absence of sperm or low viability of sperm.
Hormone replacement therapy
Women after menopause can also have a scope to become pregnant through hormone replacement therapy. However, multiple tests require checking the ability to carry the pregnancy. Sometimes donor eggs are also used to increase the scope of pregnancy.
All the above-mentioned treatment facilities are available in India in a cost-effective manner.