Infertility is a complex condition usually associated with reproductive system disorder.
Both or either of the male and/or female partners may responsible for infertility. Broadly, infertility is categorized as primary and secondary.
In primary infertility, the germ cell structure growth is arrested. Consequently, cell necrosis happens because of anatomical or physiological disorders. Premature ovarian failure (POF), polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), endometriosis, and leiomyoma are some of the underlying causes of female primary infertility.
Disruption of spermatogenesis and associated semen anomalies like irregular sperm count, morphological disorder, or motility defect, and even sometimes normal parameters of semen (idiopathic infertility) lead to primary male infertility.
However, the underlying causes of secondary infertility are systemic or syndromic genetic defects such as endocrinal, metabolic, or developmental defects.
Some of the genetic disorders like fragile X syndrome, Fanconi anemia, sickle cell anemia, β-thalassemia, myotonic dystrophy, Kartagener’s syndrome, Noonan syndrome, etc. that can responsible for male or female infertility. Sex development disorders, reproductive dysgenesis disorders, Kallmann syndrome, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, congenital bilateral absence of vas deferens, ambiguous genitalia, and androgen insensitivity are some other disorders involve genetic conditions that have a connection with infertility.
Here it is necessary to mention that no infertility gene exists. Therefore, the transmission of such genes to the next generation cannot possible. Therefore, no infertile parents explicitly can pass the condition through DNA transmission.
However, certain underlying causes can transmit from parents to children. Following are some conditions that may cause a diseased person to become infertile and also the reason for hereditary infertility.
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)
Certain findings recognized that women with PCOS can be inherited from her mother. In PCOS conditions, ovarian function disorder leads to irregular periods and lack of ovulation. In general, PCOS is one of the common findings among infertile women who are facing difficulty to conceive. However, modern fertility treatments can regulate PCOS and help sufferers to get pregnant.
In endometriosis, a tissue lining is formed outside the womb. This is another potential cause of inheritance infertility. This indicates that endometriosis can be transmitted from a mother to her female child/children.
Klinefelter’s syndrome is a genetic disorder for male infertility. In this condition, the affected father transmits an extra X chromosome to his male child/children. Klinefelter’s syndrome is one of the common male chromosomal disorders found across the globe. A male with Klinefelter’s syndrome often struggles for assisting in natural conception.